The monthly journal Adineh was one of, if not the most, respected independent and liberal-leaning secular publications in Iran; focusing on culture, society, politics, and literature. In 1985, journalist and literary critic Faraj Sarkoohi established the journal, along with Cyrus Alinejad, Masoud Behnoud, and Gholam Hossein Zakeri. Faraj Sarkoohi was the editor in chief of Adineh from 1988 to 1996.
Sarkoohi was imprisoned at various times due to his involvement with both Adineh and Iran’s Writers Association. The Writers Association at one point published an open letter, later known as the “Text of the 134,” which included 134 signatures from an array of writers, poets, journalists, and translators calling for an end to censorship in Iran. On January 27th, 1997 the government once again arrested Sarkoohi. He spent one year in prison on charges of spreading propaganda against the Islamic regime. Sarkoohi now lives in exile in Germany.

The government shut down Adineh permanently in 1999. The Islamic Republic News Agency reported that the journal was shut down after then editor in chief Gholam Hossein Zakeri was found guilty of “insult and dissemination of lies and corrupt articles” by the 1410 judiciary branch court in Tehran. The court also ordered that Zakeri pay a nine-million rial fine (about 3000 USD at that time). The team at Adineh was given twenty days to appeal the court’s decision. Interestingly, Ahmad Bourqani, Iran’s Culture and Islamic Guidance Deputy Minister at the time, was quoted in a farewell speech he gave at the ministry as saying, “Young trees have shot up, but there are apparently people who are determined to cut them off at the roots…The only excuse for this is that someone might not like the smell if these young trees grow and flower.” The quote was reflected in all major Iranian newspapers.